Umanistica Digitale <strong>Umanistica Digitale – ISSN 2532-8816</strong> is the platinum open acccess journal of the Italian Association of Digital Humanities (AIUCD - Associazione per l’Informatica Umanistica e la Cultura Digitale). In keeping with the objectives of the Association, Umanistica Digitale serves as a discussion venue for topics pertaining to the Digital Humanities, ranging from the theoretical and methodological foundations of computational models in social science to the development and application of computational systems and digital tools in the humanities; from the study of new phenomena in internet cultures, to the analysis of changes happening in scientific communication and in research infrastructures. Umanistica Digitale is a scientific journal targeted at a specific community; nevertheless, it aspires to become an open space, one that is accessible to as wide and varied an audience as possible in order to enrich its primary audience. AIUCD ; FICLIT en-US Umanistica Digitale 2532-8816 <p>The copyrights and publishing rights of all articles in this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"> <img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Students of humanities and digital skills: a survey on Italian university students <p><span style="font-family: 'Liberation Serif', serif;">This paper presents a study carried out to survey the digital skills of Italian students belonging to the latest generation of digital natives and currently enrolled in university courses of humanities, in which IT and digital skills risk to be neglected both by the students’ interest and the range of offered courses. The study aims to understand how students perceive their level of digital skills and whether there is a discrepancy between their self-assessed level and their actual knowledge. Participants answered a survey of four sections, including preliminary questions, two self-assessment parts and a section containing multiple-choice questions, based on the European Framework of Digital Competences, on both theoretical and practical aspects of IT and digital skills. Results show that participants tend to overestimate their digital skills and that they lack knowledge of basic topics. Besides outlining the digital competences of Italian humanities students, this study points out digital skills that should be strengthen, whereas they are often taken for granted by teachers and institutions, although students need those skills in their university and professional life, but also for their daily digital needs.</span></p> Floriana Sciumbata Copyright (c) 2020 Floriana Sciumbata 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9877 Digital Autoethnography & Connected Intelligence: Two Qualitative Practice-Based Teaching Methods for the Digital Humanities <p>In higher education we witness a unique conjuncture: on the one hand, students who attend academic courses are the first generation to have fully grown in a digitalized world; on the other hand, teachers, while having grown and studied in a still largely analogue world, have witnessed the evolution of today’s techno-society since its infancy. By connecting the field of the Digital Humanities with education, this article discusses the conception, design and results of two practice-based teaching experiences which were aimed at exploring the tensions embedded in our daily use of digital technologies, as well as in today’s techno-society as a whole. The first one is a “digital autoethnography” developed at the City University of Hong Kong; the second one refers to the course “Anthropology of Communication” – co-delivered at Politecnico of Milan – which adopted a “connected intelligence” approach to urge students to reflect on tomorrow’s techno-society in a collaborative way. While the first experience was chiefly a self-reflexive study on the impact of social media on the individual, the second one mapped the main criticalities of techno-society as a whole, according to seven macro-themes, and asked students to elaborate possible solutions. Both courses considered students as active learners/users, insofar as they at the forefront of today digital revolution, but also the subjects most in need of critical tools to face it.</p> Stefano Calzati Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Calzati 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9881 Progettare, realizzare e promuovere contenuti culturali digitali. Un esempio di didattica integrata: il progetto “Filosofia & Migrazioni” <p>The article describes the project <em>Philosophy &amp; Migration. Design, implement and promote digital cultural content</em> (<a href=""></a>). The project started in 2017 thanks to the collaboration between researchers in History and Philosophy of the National Research Council (CNR) and the Italian Philosophical Society (SFI) - Roman Section. All the activities are characterized by the joint work of researchers, teachers and students, this cooperation is an example of integration of curricular programs in philosophy with the study of contemporary migrations and the development of skills in design and organizing digital content. The article focuses on the project and its model to stress the multiple connections between the world of research and the world of education; the complementarity and integration between knowledge and skills; the importance of a critical use of digital tools and methodologies. We also underline the criticalities and the difficulties we encountered in our work such as the still embryonic digital literacy of teachers and students, the inadequacy of the school infrastructures, the difficulty to use technologies in a critical way.</p> Ada Russo Cristina Marras Copyright (c) 2020 Ada Russo, Cristina Marras 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9919 LiLa: Linking Latin. Risorse linguistiche per il latino nel Semantic Web <p>The LiLa: Linking Latin project aims to build a Knowledge Base of language resources for the study of Latin (corpora, digital lexicons, natural-language-processing tools), based on the Linked Open Data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss the goals and motivation of the project. In particular, we focus on the role played by the lemma as a hub node that holds together the network of linguistic information. The architecture of LiLa is therefore based on lemmas and their morphological properties. The paper illustrates the strategies used to build a collection of Latin lemmas and the first experiments to link them to a set of textual resources (Latin treebanks).</p> Francesco Mambrini Flavio Massimiliano Cecchini Greta Franzini Eleonora Litta Marco Carlo Passarotti Paolo Ruffolo Copyright (c) 2020 Francesco Mambrini, Flavio Massimiliano Cecchini, Greta Franzini, Eleonora Litta, Marco Carlo Passarotti, Paolo Ruffolo 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9975 A Manual for Web Corpus Crawling of Low Resource Languages <p>Since the seminal publication of “Web as Corpus” [1], the potential of creating corpora from the web has been realized for good for the creation of both online and offline corpora: noisy vs. clean, balanced vs. convenient, annotated vs. raw, small vs. big are only some antonyms that can be used to describe the range of possible corpora that can be and have been created. In our case, in the wake of the project Under Resourced Language Content Finder (URLCoFi), we describe a systematic approach to the compilation of corpora for low (or under) resource(d) languages (LRL) from the web in connection with a free eLearning course funded by studiumdigitale at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Despite the ease of retrieval of documents from the web, some characteristics of the digital medium introduce certain difficulties. For instance, if someone was to collect <em>all</em> documents on the web in a certain language, firstly, the collection could only be a snapshot since the web constantly changes content and secondly, there would be no way to ascertain completeness. In this paper, we show ways to deal with such difficulties in search scenarios for LRLs presenting experiences springing from a course about this topic.</p><p>[1] A. Kilgarriff and G. Grefenstette, “Web as corpus,” in <em>Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2001</em>, 2001, pp. 342–344.</p> Armin Hoenen Cemre Koc Marc Daniel Rahn Copyright (c) 2020 Armin Hoenen, Cemre Koc, Marc Daniel Rahn 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9931 Testi e conversazioni. Il racconto collettivo dei social network <span>The spread of digital textuality through conversational processes characterizes the social web. The diffusion of this phenomenon makes it necessary to identify those characteristics that form the basis of a profitable and conscious approach through an analysis that includes all those cases and related reflections that are transversal to the typographical and computational paradigms and textual and visual communication. The aim is to balance the performative/narrative aspect on the one hand and the logical/structural aspect on the other within the context of an active participation.</span> Federico Meschini Copyright (c) 2020 Federico Meschini 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9958 Complessità della codifica ed ergonomia strumentale nel contesto XML-TEI: dove siamo? <p lang="it-IT" align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Adobe Garamond Pro', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The aim of this paper is, first of all, to offer on overview of the problems related to the production of XML-TEI files and it summarizes the experience gained in the realization of a digital edition project financed by a Marie Curie Fellowship (DigiFlorimont, grant n° 745821). The tools are in fact still far from being ergonomic. The issue is crucial as the instrumental gap affects both the spread of digital publishing and the quality of the proposed textual encoding. The risk is to continue producing a "simplified encoding with complex tools" when, after decades of practice, we should rather produce a "complex encoding with simplified tools". The DigiFlorimont project involved the creation of an XML-TEI editor-prototype that generates the code automatically starting from a symbolic syntax (inspired by the Markdown model) applied to a .txt file associated with a .csv file. Thanks to this tool, it was possible to create a very complex encoding XML-TEI according to a textual model conceived as a words database, ready to be used for other analyzes beyond the specific objectives of the production context. These technical reflections also aim to clarify the role of the "digital philologist": he is a philologist charged of disseminating within the academic community a philoligically and informatically correct text, "ready for use", according to a scholarly model of progressive capitalization of the analysis work.</span></span></span></p> Marta Materni Copyright (c) 2020 Marta Materni 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9976 The Use of Blockchain for Digital Archives: a comparison between Ethereum and Hyperledger (AIUCD 2019) <p dir="ltr"><span>Negli ultimi anni la tecnologia blockchain si sta diffondendo sempre più su larga scala in diversi settori di ricerca, inclusi i Beni Culturali. Esistono diverse tipologie di blockchain, che possono essere classificate sia in base al tipo di utenti che possono accedervi, sia in base alle funzionalità che offrono. Questo articolo descrive uno studio teorico in cui si confrontano due blockchain molto diverse tra di loro: Ethereum e Hyperledger, al fine di definire quale delle due è maggiormente indicata per la memorizzazione di beni culturali tangibili contenuti in archivi digitali. Dopo una breve descrizione delle due tecnologie, verrà descritto un possibile scenario di applicazione abbastanza generico per poter capire quale delle due tecnologie meglio soddisfa i requisiti. Verrà quindi effettuato il confronto tra le due blockchain sulla base di </span><span>problematiche generali</span><span>, </span><span>requisiti architetturali</span><span> e </span><span>considerazioni varie</span><span>. Come risultato del confronto, emergerà che Hyperledger Fabric è più adatta nel contesto degli archivi digitali.</span></p><div><span><br /></span></div> Angelica Lo Duca Clara Bacciu Andrea Marchetti Copyright (c) 2020 Angelica Lo Duca, Clara Bacciu, Andrea Marchetti 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9959 Introduzione <p>Il presente numero della rivista Umanistica Digitale propone una selezione di contributi presentati al convegno AIUCD 2019 che si è tenuto ad Udine dal 23 al 25 gennaio 2019 ed il cui tema principale è stato “Didattica e ricerca al tempo delle Digital Humanities”. Il convegno annuale dell’Associazione, giunto nel 2019 all’ottava edizione, sta diventando negli anni sempre più un punto di riferimento per il vasto settore delle Digital Humanities, come dimostrato dalle numerose proposte presentate e dalla presenza internazionale assai nutrita. Gli articoli presenti in questo numero, tutti sottoposti a <em>double peer review</em> ai fini della loro accettazione, sono una testimonianza dell’ampio dibattito multidisciplinare svoltosi durante il convegno e che ha visto un’ampia partecipazione da parte della comunità degli studiosi che si riconosce nelle tematiche dell’Associazione.</p> Stefano Allegrezza Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Allegrezza 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/10965 La didattica a distanza, dall'emergenza alle buone pratiche <p>L'isolamento imposto dalla pandemia del Covid-19 ha obbligato le università a dotarsi rapidamente di strumenti atti a consentire la prosecuzione dell'attività didattica a distanza. Interventi più disordinati e spontanei, tesi al medesimo scopo, sono stati attuati anche nel mondo della scuola. La comunità degli umanisti digitali e buona parte dei docenti, anche quelli prima blandamente o scarsamente interessati all’e-learning, hanno cominciato a riflettere sulle potenzialità e quindi sulle strategie per rendere efficace l’insegnamento con gli strumenti digitali genericamente intesi.<br />Il 25 marzo 2020, all’interno del Seminario di Cultura Digitale (corso istituzionale del Cdl magistrale in Informatica Umanistica dell’Università di Pisa), si è tenuto un dialogo telematico tra i due relatori, teso non a valutare l’efficacia dei mezzi adottati dai diversi enti formativi, ma a discutere le metodologie, le buone pratiche e gli strumenti necessari per attuarle, mettendo a disposizione le competenze e le conoscenze che, in qualità di umanisti digitali ed esperti in tecnologie dell’apprendimento, hanno maturato negli anni. Quello che segue è l’elaborazione del seminario a seguito delle osservazioni raccolte.</p> Giuseppe Fiorentino Enrica Salvatori Copyright (c) 2020 Giuseppe Fiorentino, Enrica Salvatori 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/10872 Fenomenologia dell'educazione post COVID-19: un dialogo sull'uso e la funzione degli sfondi nella DaD <p> </p><div><p>La Didattica a Distanza (DaD) tramite tecnologie digitali, che il sistema scolastico nazionale ha dovuto adottare con la massima urgenza in seguito al blocco totale di tutte le attività formative e all’isolamento preventivo necessari per arginare la drammatica diffusione del COVID-19, ha attivato dibattiti, confronti, riflessioni quanto mai stimolanti sul potenziale che queste tecnologie potrebbero avere nel non molto distante futuro post-pandemia.</p><p>In seguito ad alcune sollecitazioni emerse da un webinar dal titolo “<em>Approcci digitali per la didattica della storia: interazione, creazione, riuso di risorse online</em>”, tenutosi il 20 aprile 2020 nell’ambito del progetto dell’INDIRE <em>Le reti Avanguardie educative, Piccole Scuole e eTwinning a supporto dell’emergenza sanitaria</em>, si è avuto uno spontaneo scambio di mail sulla funzione e sul potenziale degli sfondi nell’ambito della DaD tra il relatore Nicola Barbuti e Isabel de Maurissens, ricercatrice dell’INDIRE che ha maturato una rilevante esperienza sulla funzione euristica dell’immagine in quanto docente esperta in <em>Educazione allo sviluppo sostenibile</em>.</p><p>Le suggestioni emerse hanno generato nei due ricercatori un interesse ad approfondire l’argomento, inducendoli ad avere un confronto più diretto e, poi, ad avviare una ricerca congiunta su un tema che, a loro parere, non sarà secondario negli scenari della didattica post-pandemia, a quanto pare indirizzata verso un impiego delle metodologie e tecnologie digitali come parte integrante e sistematizzata della didattica nell’intero sistema educativo e, forse, anche nella formazione universitaria.</p>Il presente contributo riporta integralmente le considerazioni scambiate dai due ricercatori nella loro corrispondenza. Il testo è stato mantenuto volutamente fedele a quello delle mail, inclusi i riferimenti estemporanei sia ad autori e persone esistenti che a tematiche scientifiche connesse con quella discussa. Ove possibile, per alcuni riferimenti sono state inserite note esplicative utili a favorirne la contestualizzazione. </div> Nicola Barbuti Isabel de Maurissens Copyright (c) 2020 Nicola Barbuti, Isabel de Maurissens 2020-06-18 2020-06-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/11093 Recensione: Caterino, A. F., et al. (cur.). 2019. GLODIUM. Glossario di Informatica Umanistica. Ururi: Al segno di Fileta The following is a review of Glossario di Informatica Umanistica, a small Digital Humanities (DH) dictionary, conceived by Antonello Fabio Caterino and edited by him and other scholars. The work, which opens with two introductory essays, is a collection of forty-five entries dedicated to Italian DH terms and their definitions. The purpose of GLODIUM, which is primarily aimed at students and scholars with little or no DH knowledge, is to provide some basic information about each entry, such as meaning, origin, history, technology and applications. Francesco Bianco Copyright (c) 2020 Francesco Bianco 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/10743 Recensione: Mancinelli, Tiziana, e Elena Pierazzo. 2020. Che cos’è un’edizione scientifica digitale. Roma: Carocci This paper offers a review to Mancinelli, Tiziana, e Elena Pierazzo. 2020. Che cos’è un’edizione scientifica digitale. Roma: Carocci (Bussole), pp. 125, ISBN: 978-8843099054. Anna Cappellotto Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Cappellotto 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/10603 Recensione: Fiormonte, Domenico. 2018. Per una critica del testo digitale. Letteratura, filologia e rete. Roma: Bulzoni <em>Per una critica del testo digitale, </em>the last book of Domenico Fiormonte, collects fifteen years of articles about the relationship between literature, philology, and the web. The review outlines the most relevant aspects of the research: from code policy to philology understood as a cultural approach that must not be limited to written texts but must use its own tools also with respect to algorithms. The book, divided into a theoretical-methodological and a practical part, presents the reflections on some experiences as <em>Digital variants</em>, the digital scholarly edition of some autographs of Italian and Spanish authors, making us enter the critic-coder's laboratory through real examples. Finally, the role of the interface in digital editions, the overcoming of the concept of variant as traditionally understood, and a reflection on the pragmatic model to be opposed to the postal model of Shannon and Weaver's communication – all of these elements belong to a thorough critique of the digital text. Christian D'Agata Copyright (c) 2020 Christian D'Agata 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/10592 Mappe di memoria: insegnare gli anni di piombo The site and the initiative <em>Mappe di memoria</em> aims at conveying the memory of the terroristic massacres and the murderers in Emilia during the Years of Lead to the new generations. In spite of a sharable and clear purpose, it needs, as digital public history project, much commitment by the experts in order to improve not only the graphics, but also the contents and the whole structure. Camilla Zucchi Copyright (c) 2020 Camilla Zucchi 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 8 10.6092/issn.2532-8816/9332